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By Marcus Rose and Emily Addington
Project Baseline Loch Long (PBLL) team members are constantly on the lookout for opportunities to collaborate with conservation and scientific research organizations, and 2019 is already looking promising. Loch Long is a saltwater sea loch approximately 20 miles long and around one to two miles wide with depths ranging from six to 56 meters. The loch is the host to vast sea life ranging from plant life, small crustaceans, fish, and eels to large marine mammals such as porpoise and seals. One of our regular divers is a postgraduate student at Strathclyde University, and his links with the university have introduced PBLL to Diving for Antibiotics.
Diving for Antibiotics uses citizen science divers to collect underwater samples in an attempt to discover uncharacterized species of actinobacteria. Actinobacteria are found ubiquitously in soil across terrestrial, fresh-aquatic, and marine environments where they produce antimicrobial secondary-metabolites to compete with other microorganisms. These secondary-metabolites constitute approximately 70% of naturally derived antibiotics in clinical use today, as well as much of the anti-cancer, anti-anthelmintic, anti-viral, antihypertensive, and antifungal compounds. However, novel antibiotic discovery is now rare, as terrestrial strains of actinobacteria have been extensively explored and exploited.
Unlike terrestrial sources, the marine biosphere has been relatively undersampled and holds enormous potential for the discovery of new actinobacteria species, which may produce novel antibiotics. In 2009-2010, 2,014 novel natural products were discovered from marine environments and in 2010, 300 previously unknown natural products were isolated from marine microorganisms and species of phytoplankton. In summary, the ocean holds great potential for the discovery of new antibiotics, and citizen divers are a useful and economic way of collecting samples.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is predicted to become a leading cause of death globally by 2050. By current estimates there are approximately 700,000 deaths per year associated with antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, predicted to rise to 10 million by 2050. As antibiotics in clinical practice today become ineffectual, it is critical that new antibiotics become available.
In order to generate interest in this collaboration opportunity, interested divers who apply will be sent a collection box containing a leaflet summarizing what antibiotics are, how they are discovered, why AMR is a global crisis, and finally, the importance of marine microorganisms in the future of antibiotic discovery. A guide to collecting a sample, along with a list of required information such as coordinates of the sampling location, will also be sent.
The divers will be given a sterile collection tube with their own personal sample number, and a prepaid postage label allowing them to return their sample by post to the University of Strathclyde. They will then be able to use their personal sample number to track the progress of their sample on the Instagram: @diveforantibiotics. This Instagram channel will feature photographs of the isolates and describe how the bacteria are isolated, sequenced, and tested for production of bioactive metabolites. At the end of the project, participating divers will be invited to Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences for an afternoon of talks about AMR and antibiotic discovery given by Ph.D. students.
The Project Baseline Loch Long team is extremely excited about this latest collaboration, and we look forward to tracking the progress of collected samples. We’ll send a report once our samples have been submitted and their fate is known.
Marcus Rose is a GUE instructor, passionate project diver, and is joint project manager (with Ryan Mcshane) for the Project Baseline Loch Long site. Teaching mostly on the west coast of Scotland, he also enjoys building collaborations with local scientists and conservation groups, and travelling to cave dive. His recent participation in the Sardinia Cave Project was a highlight for him.
Emily Addington is an EPSRC-funded Ph.D. student in molecular microbiology at the University of Strathclyde. Her research focuses on the evolution of bacterial virulence via investigations of the Actinobacteria Streptomyces coelicolor. As part of a Microbiology Society funded project, Emily is also interested in discovering novel marine actinobacteria with potential anti-microbial secondary metabolites and in public outreach and engagement. Emily holds a bachelor’s degree in biological science and a Master of Research in biomolecular science from the University of East Anglia, England.
Fiona Sharp, You Will Be Sorely Missed
As you have likely heard, we’ve lost one of the irrepressible and much-loved characters in the tech and diving medicine community, 55-year old Australian anesthesiologist and diving physician Fiona Sharp.
By Rosemary E Lunn
Header photo by Catherine Meehan. Fiona in Sodwana Bay.
One of the colorful characters in the field of diving medicine died tragically in a rebreather diving accident on Thursday, October 17, 2019. Fifty-five-year-old, Australian diving physician and anesthetist Dr. Fiona Sharp, MBBS, FANZCA, was found unresponsive on a reef at 24 m/80 f. She had been solo diving on a rebreather, and she was discovered with her mouthpiece out. Fiona was medevaced but did not regain consciousness. The incident occurred on the last day of Fiona’s diving trip to Bonaire, located in the Leeward Antilles, Carribean Sea. It was the week after Bonaire Tek. Fiona enjoyed deep rebreather diving and was known to be a bit of a maverick.
“We are shattered.” Bruce and Lynn Partridge, Shearwater Research.
The disturbing news of Fiona’s death rocketed around the world in a few hours. Many people from the diving medicine and technical diving communities expressed their dismay and distress at Fiona’s death. She was gregarious, fun-loving, irrepressible, and generous. Fiona was a friendly colleague and we had dived together a few times. I wrote a heartfelt tribute about Fiona’s bulldozer attitude to life and diving, and this was published by X-Ray Mag. It includes a myriad of voices from around the globe and amply illustrates just how well-loved she was by her colleagues and friends.
“Fiona was an individual. She did what she wanted. She did what she loved. She was very much her own person, and drove us mad at times. Fiona was down to earth, had a massive heart, a huge personality, and was very dear to all of us. She will be greatly missed.”Dr. Catherine Meehan
Fiona Sharp was born in May, 1964, in Perth, Australia, and she was bright! She attended Mercedes College Perth, where she was “Dux” in her graduating year. [Dux: from Latin for ‘leader,’ the term that is now used in Australia and New Zealand to indicate the highest-ranking student in a specific achievement).
After leaving high school, Fiona studied medicine at the University of Western Australia where she graduated in 1989 as a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS UWA). After serving an internship in Perth in 1989, followed by a year as a junior Resident in Sydney, Fiona moved to England where she gained her Diploma of Anaesthesia (DA) in 1992, whilst working as a Senior House Officer in Anaesthetics in Southend, Essex.
Fiona then returned to Australia and commenced specialist Anaesthetics training. In 2000, she flew once again to the UK where she spent five years practicing diving medicine at DDRC Healthcare (Diving Diseases and Research) in Plymouth. During this period, she was awarded a Fellow of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (FANZCA) Fellowship in 2004.
At the time of her death, Fiona Sharp was working at the Fiona Stanley Hyperbaric Medicine Unit (FSHHMU) in Perth, Western Australia. She had been in post since it opened in November 2014. Prior to that, she was employed at the HMU at Fremantle Hospital from 2007 to November 2014. (The department then relocated to the newly built department at FSH).
Whilst writing this, I spoke to Fiona’s family and asked: “why medicine?” They responded,
“If you are really smart at school, you are expected to be an architect, a lawyer, or a doctor. Medicine appealed to her; however, it was possible that she could have become a vet because the family did have a lot of animals.”Fiona’s family
“She was nuts, about everything. But especially about diving.”Dirk Peterson
Fiona got into diving in her late teens after trying skydiving and scuba diving. Water prevailed and she learned to dive when she was 18 years old. She was a PADI Divemaster, cave certified and qualified to dive the Inspiration, Evolution, SF2, Drager Dolphin, Mark VI Poseidon, and JJ-CCR rebreathers.
You cannot ever say that diving was her hobby. It was her all-encompassing great passion. Fiona recently told her older sister that she felt happiest when she was underwater. It was therefore natural that she would take an active interest in diving medicine, and she became a fixture at all the major diving medical or tech conferences. SPUMS, UHMS, EUBS, HTNA, as well as EUROTEK, OzTek, Rebreather Forum 3 and other diving industry events. These helped keep her current and educated in this niche sector.
“Fiona loved the diving, diving medicine, and the camaraderie around the bar. She was regularly first up and last to bed. Most often, Fiona could be heard well before she was seen on land and underwater!! She was well-loved by her colleagues at these events and, as many have said, the SPUMS Conference won’t be the same without her. I think she attended at least 17.”Dr. Neil Banham, Fiona Stanley Hospital
Fiona’s first South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS) Conference was at Layang, Layang island, in Malaysia in 1999, a venue well suited to her type of diving because it was deep. It was at a later SPUMS, in 2008, that Fiona’s diving would change. Dr. Catherine Meehan takes up the story.
“I met Fiona at a SPUMS meeting about 20 years ago. In 2008, I chartered the ‘Golden Dawn’ liveaboard. Ten of us flew into Alotau in Papua. New Guinea. and we sailed and dived our way across to Kimbe Bay, West New Britain, to join the SPUMS annual scientific conference. There was a rebreather on board and Fiona had a guided rebreather dive. She enjoyed it so much that she dived with it for the rest of the week. I believe this was one of her earliest experiences rebreather diving, and I think that she embarked on her passion for diving rebreathers shortly afterward.”
Catherine and Fiona would regularly dive together, at least two or three times a year, all over the world.
“We did a lot of conferences and diving together. We were most recently in South Africa diving Sodwana Bay. She was dressed in her vibrant orange drysuit so it was easy to see where she was, doing her own thing. It was tough cold water diving, but she was very hardy and didn’t miss a dive, even when her suit leaked. It is a good lasting memory of her.”
“It was like she had been shot out of a cannon when she entered a room.”Joanna Mikutowicz, DiveTech
Fiona Sharp never did anything by halves, and this is amply demonstrated by a classic Fiona story that her older sister Donna regaled to me.
“Many years ago Fiona rang me up and said, ‘I have got two tickets to the rugby game on Friday night, do you want to come with me?’ I thought, ‘Why not?’ One of our kids plays rugby at school. I rocked up at the game and she said to me, ‘Here is your ticket. Don’t worry about paying. And by the way, these tickets are not just for tonight’s game. They are season tickets’.”
She goes on:
“We ended up supporting the Western Force, a professional Perth-based rugby team, for the next twelve years and watched them play Super Rugby against New Zealand and South Africa. What I found ironic was that I went to nearly every game. I think Fiona missed more games than any of us because she was away diving so much.”
“Fiona Sharp drew no quarters when it came to life and diving. I only met her a few times, but she left an aircraft carrier shipwreck-sized impression on my psyche and we remained in contact.”Laura James, Environmental Campaigner, Underwater Cinematographer
Many divers have been generous with their Fiona stories. Todd and Tiffany Winn of Silent O Solutions reached out to me with another classic Fiona tale and said I could share it. When Fiona decided you would be friends, the recipient really didn’t stand a chance.
“Fiona’s reputation as ‘difficult’ preceded her, and our first encounter with her was memorable, to say the least. It was in San Diego for an in-water recompression symposium and training event in 2014. She exceeded my expectations. I believe she only told me I was completely mistaken two or three times. I conceded two of three and agreed to disagree on the third. She had an uncanny ability to defuse my ire with a wry smirk. As she had already decided we’d be friends, I had little say in the matter.”Tiffany Winn
“Tiff liked Fiona immediately and loved her unflinching honesty and authenticity. Fiona threatened to visit us on Maui on one of her transits across the globe, but unlike nearly everyone else she called and texted for a month straight, ironing out the details, and sure enough, one day, showed up. We loaded up our little boat for its maiden voyage, and Tiff and Fifi had a girl’s day rebreathering all by themselves. We had a beautiful day and a fabulous sunset. We will remember her fondly and often, and will miss her dearly.”Todd Winn
It is only right that I leave the last words to her family. I was told that Fiona had wanted to climb Mount Everest, but she suffered so badly with altitude sickness, that she just about made it to base camp and no further. Fiona was always willing to take a risk, and push herself. Apparently she competed in triathlons in her early 20’s, and she liked challenges. Everyone who came into contact with her soon found out she had a very dry sense of humor.
“Fiona didn’t like cheap champagne or wine. It had to be good quality and lots of it, and she always brought home two bottles of whiskey from every trip for her father.”Donna Sharp
Fiona was close to her family. She is survived by her mother, three sisters, a brother, and 18 cousins. She was an “oh so very proud” aunt to 13 nieces and nephews. Typically big-hearted and kind, Fiona had planned to take a nephew to Antarctica this November. You mad as a box of frogs lady, you will be missed.
The author is very grateful for the assistance of the Sharp family and Dr. Neil Banham, Director of Hyperbaric Medicine at Fiona Stanley Hospital in writing this tribute.
Dive industry fixer, Rosemary E Lunn (“Roz”) is the Business Development Director at The Underwater Marketing Company. This British firm specializes in providing marketing, communications, social media and event management for the “tecreational” and technical diving industry. Rosemary is a PADI IDC Staff Instructor, BSAC Advanced Instructor, Trimix, and CCR diver. Before moving into the public relations field, she worked as a professional recreational instructor, safety diver, and underwater model underwater and appeared on the History Channel and National Geographic documentaries. She established TEKDiveUSA and organized Rebreather Forum 3 on behalf of AAUS, DAN, and PADI. In 2008, Rosemary co-founded EUROTEK, the European advanced and technical diving biennial conference. She is a respected and prolific diving author, an SSI Platinum Diver, an Associate Member of the Women Divers Hall of Fame, and sits on the SITA Board (Scuba Industry Trade Association).
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