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Deep Drift Diving in Cozumel

With its spectacular reef encrusted walls and irresistible current Cozumel has been a ‘Mecca’ of recreational diving for nearly thirty years; mind that 130-ft/40m depth limit! Now explorer and tech instructor Alberto Nava takes us on a journey to rediscover the parts of underwater Cozumel that single-tank tourist divers will never see. Are you ready to mix it up and conduct some unapologetically DEEP Cozumel drift diving?

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By Alberto Nava

Header photo by James Babor.

After doing all my closed circuit rebreather (CCR) critical control checks, i.e., “CHAOS,”  I jumped into the water to find myself in warm, cobalt blue water. We descended to 6 m/20 ft, did a quick bubble check, and started our descent. My automatic diluent valve (ADV) delivered a wonderful trimix 15/60 (15% O2, 60% helium) mix as I dropped down the wall and leveled off at about 60 m/197 ft. A large black grouper came to greet us, and we quickly reached the 65 m/213 ft overhang on the wall—the old coastline from the previous ice age. We followed the grouper inside the overhang and reached 80 m/263 ft. We found two large lionfish resting on a sizeable white sponge, and large strands of black corals and colorful gorgonian were all around. We turned our bodies into the current and began our 180-minute drift dive along the incredible walls of Cozumel. We were in heaven!

As we drifted along enjoying this incredible dive, my mind drifted back 20 years ago,

when I used to dive the Caribbean Sea in my home country of Venezuela. At that time, I had just become a PADI divemaster and used to take people on warm-water adventures in Venezuela’s national marine park, Los Roques Archipelago, near the island of Bonaire. As a divemaster, we limited our dives to 30 m/100 ft and closely followed the no-decompression limits. The tools of those times were single aluminum 80 (AL80) tanks, a warm-water wetsuit or no wetsuit at all on some dives, and the famous multi-level diving PADI wheeI.  

In my 20-year evolution as a diver, I’m so thankful to have found the Global Underwater Explorers (GUE) organization and its amazing mentors, which made my 180-minute dive to 70 m/230 ft seem as simple as the old single tank diving of my past. Is this for real? Can Caribbean diving be even more incredible with GUE tools? Please allow me to take you on my rediscovery of the Caribbean during the last three years, with the hope that you will also enjoy the incredible natural resource we have at our disposal.

In 1998, as technical diving was just getting started, I moved to California after spending a few years attending school in Sydney, Australia. My time in Oz had left me a bit frustrated, having experienced what I now perceive as dangerous deep air dives in the Sydney Harbor as well as in the caves of Mount Gambier, near Melbourne. I arrived in California wanting to learn to use alternative breathing gases for going deeper.

I experienced improvements on the diving procedures and gases while training with West Coast technical diving pioneer Wings Stock from Santa Cruz, where we used to breathe trimix 20/20 (20% O2, 20% helium) at 67 m/220 ft. But, it was really not until I took my GUE Tech 1 class in 2001 that deep diving came to a new light. Helium was such a wonderful gas to put in our tanks, and the more the better. For me, doing a 46  m/150 ft dive with 35% helium removed most of the ambiguities of deep diving, reduced the risk, and made deep diving a much more enjoyable experience. 

Living in Monterey, I was able to explore and document many of our deep water pinnacles, including those at Point Lobos Marine Reserve, Big Sur Banks, and others. 

Unfortunately, I quickly forgot all about the Caribbean and settled in as a cold-water California diver. During that time I also started going to Mexico to dive the amazing caves of the Yucatan Peninsula. 

Fortunately, I got better at cave diving, got into exploration, and was lucky to discover the Hoyo Negro Pit and an amazing assembly of animal and human remains from the Late Pleistocene. From 2007 to 2014, Hoyo Negro, underwater archaeology, and scientific diving were at the center of my diving world. As time went by, my distant past as a Caribbean diver faded more and more from my diving horizons. 

The Return to the Caribbean

In 2014, I reluctantly agreed to a warm-water diving vacation with my girlfriend. Cozumel was close to the caves, so I figured I could do my cave diving project, then spend a few days of diving Cozumel in order to make everybody happy. However, as soon as I jumped into the water, I recognized the warm, blue water surrounding my body and realized I had been there before; in fact, it was imprinted in my mind.

I was quickly able to find all the little creatures inhabiting the reef, including seahorses, green moray eels, and arrow crabs, and the larger creatures as well: barracudas, eagle rays, and nurse sharks. I felt about 20 years younger, having returned to my natural environment. On the second day of diving, after the divemaster gave us a check out, we ventured to the Cozumel wall. We quickly dropped to 30 m/100 ft, and I could see the wall going down, probably to 60 m/197 ft. I immediately wanted to go deeper on the wall and explore! However, considering my minimum gas reserves, equivalent narcotic depth (END), and maximum operating depth (I was diving nitrox 32), I realized that I needed the right tools.

By the end of the trip I was convinced I needed to come back to Cozumel with GUE tools. At a minimum, we needed to ditch the single tanks for doubles, or better yet a rebreather, and find a way to get helium, Softnolime, and a reliable boat operator willing to conduct some fun tech dives. 

Photo by James Babor.

I got back home and started talking to Cozumel veterans about how to get the equipment and support I would need for deeper diving. The most common answer I got was, “People in Cozumel don’t like deep diving.” There had been too many accidents, so they didn’t want to take people deep on the reef. Furthermore, my inquiries with dive operators were not successful; the best answer I got was that some shops had larger steel tanks. 

I eventually found a dive operator who was willing to conduct deep diving and had a great boat and crew. Unfortunately, the owner of the shop had had problems with GUE divers from the early “Doing It Right” era of the ‘90s, and thus was not very welcoming to me as a GUE diver or instructor. It took a lot of energy to convince him that I was a nice person, and that I was not going to call him a “stroke” or require him to wear all Halcyon dive gear. After numerous meetings, dinners, and some mescal, I finally had access to a good boat, an experienced crew, and the all-important helium. 

Fun Diving GUE Style

Over the last three years, my friends and I have conducted numerous fun dives in Cozumel and held some simple classes. Here is a description of what’s possible starting with the simplest diving and going to the more complex.

  • Recreational diving with doubles: For me, this is entry-level Caribbean diving. You get two sets of doubles filled with 32% and conduct two dives in a day. Each dive is a multiple-level “no-stop” dive on the reef with a max operating depth (MOD) of 30 m/100 ft. Total run times are around 75 min, and typical dives have three levels with 20 min at 30 m/100 ft, followed by 20 min at 18 m/60 ft, and another 20 min at 10 m/30 ft. Divers then use their remaining gas until their runtime is in the 75 min range. Our boat operator allows for two 75 min dives when doing recreational dives. This allows for good time at depth followed by fun diving along the wall. All that’s needed to participate in this type of diving is GUE fundamentals and a doubles primer.  
  • Tech 1 dives: For GUE Tech 1 divers, the equipment of choice is a set of AL80s typically filled with trimix 18/45, and a nitrox 50 (50% O2) AL80 stage for decompression. This is the perfect combination of gear to venture on the wall with a max operating depth of 52 m/170 ft (Note that GUE standards set a maximum pO2 of 1.2 atm during the working phase of the dive, and 1.6 atm during decompression), and again a run time of 75 to 85 min. Divers can multi-level their dives into two segments with 15 min spent at 52 m/170 ft and another 15 minutes at 40 m/130 ft, followed by a nice relaxing deco drifting along the shallow reef. In order to increase the fun during deco—we call it “Fun Deco”— we make the stops longer and spend more time on the reef. A typical decompression profile might be five minutes starting at 21 m/70 feet on nitrox 50, five at 18 m/60 ft, five at 15 m /50 ft, five at 12 m/40 ft, five at 9 m/30 ft, and 10 min at 26 m/20 ft. It’s easy and FUN! AL80s and wetsuits are also an ideal combination; no need for a drysuit there. During the summer months the air temperature is around 90 degrees Fahrenheit, and the water might be as warm as 87 degrees Fahrenheit. 
  • Tech 2 dives: As people want to dive deeper on the walls, GUE Tech 2 divers get either a bottom stage to increase their time at depth, or we also have low pressure LP85 tanks available for them. They typically use both nitrox 50 and O2 for decompression. The best part of the reef is the old coastline in the 60-80 m/197-262 ft range. In order to make their gas last longer, T2 divers can also multiple-level their dive, dividing their bottom time between maximum depth and time at 45 m/148 ft. In Cozumel, there is plenty to see at maximum depth. Similar to T1 divers, decompression is done on the reef and plenty of time is spent in the 12-9 m/40-30 ft range while still on the reef, until heading out to 6 m/20 ft for a bit of O2 deco. While at 6 m/20 ft, you can still enjoy diving as you look at a school of barracudas, trevally jacks, and the occasional shark. Watching turtles is one of the treats during decompression.
  • CCR dives: The ultimate Cozumel tech dives are conducted by rebreather divers. The operator allows us to drift for up to 180 minutes, but in exchange for the long bottom time, we only conduct one dive. It’s not uncommon to have bottom times in the range of 60 minutes in the 70-80 m/230-262 ft range. These profiles require longer deco but one does so drifting along the Cozumel reefs.

The CCR allows for more flexible decompression and increases the enjoyable part of the dives. It’s not uncommon to extend the stops in the 37-21 m/120-70 ft range diving inside a coral head. We often make our stops for 20 minutes every 3 m/10 ft on our way to the surface, which allows us to stay on the reef for most of the dive. Our 6 m/20 ft stop is not much longer than the previous stop, which is a big change for people accustomed to long 6 m/20 ft stop hangs.

All in all, diving Cozumel with the appropriate tools provides for an incredible experience and allows you to practice your skills in a wonderful and warm environment. I plan to organize several trips to Cozumel in 2020. I hope you’ll be able to make it.

Beto will be running a number of ‘tech” trips to Cozumel in 2020. If you are interested please contact him at: betonavab@gmail.com


Alberto “Beto” Nava is a Venezuelan-American engineer, diver, dive instructor, and explorer based in California. He has over 18 years of diving experience and has completed over 500 cave dives. His longest cave exploration penetration dive has been 4.7 km/15,500 ft. He and his group of fellow divers particularly enjoy exploring the cenotes in the Yucatan region of Mexico. 

It was on one of these excursions that he and his colleagues discovered Hoyo Negro, or “Black Hole.” The bottom of Hoyo Negro contains bones of several Ice-Age megafauna and bones of a young girl who lived 13,000 years ago. They named her Naia. This discovery started one of the most important studies of the first Americans in recent history. From 2011 to 2015, Nava was a National Geographic Explorers Grant recipient. He used the grant to continue diving and photographing Hoyo Negro. His photography is now being used in the innovative labs of the Cultural Heritage Engineering Initiative at the Qualcomm Institute at the University of California, San Diego, to create a unique 3-D experience of Hoyo Negro for those who cannot do the difficult dive and would like to experience and study the space. 
Nava has also published several papers on diving, underwater mapping, and the discovery of Hoyo Negro. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in computer science from the Simon Bolivar National University in Venezuela and has worked as an engineer for over twenty years.

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No Fault DCI? The Story of My Wife’s PFO

What does it mean if you keep getting bent, even when you follow all the rules? Avid tech diver James Fraser recounts his and his wife’s Deana journey of discovery that led them to realize she had a PFO. Does any of this sound familiar? Read on!

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Breathing O2

by James Fraser

All photos courtesy of James Fraser

When you follow all the rules and still get decompression illness, what’s up?

The person I hold most dear in this life has now had three incidents of decompression illness (DCI) over a two-year period. The latest episode required recompression, so we began investigating her frequent illness to determine if there was a possible solution. Deana is a very conservative diver, diving within her training, computer limits, and dive planning tools such as Deco Planner. On all of the dives where she had DCI, her training, tools, and dive profiles say she should not have gotten bent. But she got bent just the same.  

DCI is a risk for any diver, even when following the rules. However, we have to remember that DCI is a potential sports injury, no different than a football player risking a concussion. Despite this fact, DCI seems stigmatized, and people feel ashamed to admit it happened to them. So Deana and I decided to share her experiences with DCI, to help others realize, Sh*t, I mean, DCI happens! Experiences with DCI should be shared, so that the diving community can continue to learn, grow, and be safer divers. 

Some background

Deana Fraser has been a registered nurse (RN) for over 25 years, and received her BSN in 2002. Throughout her career, she has specialized in ER, ICU, and OR nursing. Currently, she manages the Overlake Operating Roomin Bellevue, Wash. When Deana is not managing the OR, she is usually diving in the extreme conditions of the Pacific Northwest (PNW), where all dives are cold (46-55℉/8-13°C), dark, and wonderful. Deana has been a recreational diver since 2004, and loves diving in Seattle and the surrounding areas as often as three days a week. It is her number one passion. 

She just completed her Global Underwater Explorers (GUE) Technical 1 course (normoxic trimix) in September 2019, and as of this article she has completed over 500 dives, 150 during 2019 alone. Deana always looks forward to expanding her skills and experience in the recreational and technical diving arena. 

Deana is also a breast cancer survivor; she was diagnosed with Stage Two breast cancer in May 2016, and underwent a lumpectomy and six weeks of radiation treatment, until July 2016. She is in full recovery, but continues to take Tamoxifen (20mg) daily. This information is not intended to draw any type of correlation of breast cancer and DCI, but to give all details about Deana’s fitness and health in respect to her history with DCI.

Deana is one of those people that lets nothing hold her back. She was not able to dive for a few months after her radiation treatment, so she turned to her second love: hiking. She proceeded to hike over 200 miles (dragging her husband with her) over the next six months while she was recovering. Deana has been cancer free for over three years now and is back to her first love of diving. When she returned to diving, she pursued her dream of technical diving and signed up for GUE Fundamentals in 2017. She has been unstoppable since then and again has dragged her husband along for the ride. 

After cancer treatment, Deana spent a lot of time building up her strength and dexterity in order to pack double 100s over the rocky beaches of the PNW. She trained relentlessly to reach the goal of being a GUE Tech 1 Diver, a mission that she accomplished. In addition to her regular dives, Deana leads a weekly Skills Refinery Dive, offering opportunities for other local divers to hone their techniques and commit to excellence. Many are working on their GUE Tech skills to prepare for Tech 1. Deana is not done with her education and has dreams of completing GUE’s Tech 2 course in the future. Now that you know the type of person Deana is, let’s talk about the reason she and I have written this article. 

Look, James. I Got Stung by Something!

Deana and I went on a 16-day trip to the Maldives in April 2018. We spent the first week at Olhuveli Beach Resort resting, flipping our internal clocks, and doing a few recreational shore and boat charter dives. The second week, we joined up with our local Seattle dive group on Blue Force One, a fantastic live-aboard charter, for seven days of additional recreational diving; no dives on this trip were below 100 ft/30 m. On day three of diving on Blue Force, after her second dive, Deana talked to me about being stung on her abdomen. She presented with redness, point tenderness, and stinging in an area about the size of a silver dollar. She was wearing a full length 3mm wet so it definitely was not something she would have brushed against during the dive. She took a Benadryl, feeling that something stung her, got some sleep, and by the next morning it had cleared up. Deana continued diving for the rest of the trip and had no further symptoms. We now suspect that she had a minor case of skin bends, based on the other two episodes she has had since. 

Deana and I also dived in Loreto, Mexico, six months after the Maldives, in October 2018, and performed  ten dives over four days with a max depth of 80 ft/24 m; Deana showed no symptoms of DCI.

Could I Have Skin Bends?

In April this year, 2019, Deana and I were in Hurghada, Egypt, on a live-aboard dive trip with Red Sea Explorers aboard MV Nouran. Deana had completed eight recreational nitrox dives over three days, the deepest dive being 98 ft/30 m, when she showed signs of skin bends. Below are the dive profiles of the two dives the day she presented with skin bends. She again had symptoms of stinging and itching on her thighs and abdomen and point tenderness. The area was larger than the first experience she had in the Maldives.

First dive of the day: Double 12L tanks with nitrox 32 after 11 hour surface interval
Second Dive: Double 12L with nitrox 32 after 3:23min surface interval.

Deana again wondered if it was some kind of sting or allergic reaction and asked me and some of the more experienced divers for our opinions. A couple of the more senior technical divers on board agreed: Her symptoms looked and presented like skin bends. Deana went on 100% oxygen (O2) for a few hours, and the symptoms went away. She took the next day off and then continued to dive recreationally with more conservatism for the remainder of the trip. One other person on the trip who was doing Tech 1 level dives also showed signs of skin bends; they were treated with O2 and continued to dive for the rest of the trip with no further issues. 

After this episode we thought about the Maldives: Since it presented the same way and resolved itself with some time and O2, we now assumed that was also an incident of minor skin bends. 

Skin Bends Again, But Nothing a Bit of O2 Can’t Fix

Deana and I were attending Tek week at Buddy Dive in Bonaire. We were both looking forward to a week of Tech 1 dives (Max depth 170 ft/50 m, max deco: 30 min), as this was Deana’s first trip since passing her course. We had done three dives total over days one and two at recreational depths on nitrox 32 (32% oxygen, 68% nitrogen) with no required deco. 

On day three we planned to dive to 150 ft/46 m on trimix 21/35 (21% oxygen, 35% helium), with 25 min bottom time with a gas switch to nitrox 50 at 70 ft/21 m. Our decompression profile used GUE modified deco based on Deco Planner with 2 min stops from 70 ft/21 m to 30 ft/10 m and a 16 min stop at 20 ft/6 m. The total planned run time for that dive was 58 min. At the start of our ascent, our average depth was only 132 ft/40 m, as we had worked our way slowly up the reef after hitting a max depth of 152 ft/46 m.

Deco Planner Dive Profile
Perdix Shearwater Dive profile using GF20/85

After a three-and-a-half-hour surface interval, we planned a 100 ft/30 m dive on nitrox 32 with a bottom time of 40 min with a gas switch to 100% O2 at 20 tf/6 m for 10 minutes for added conservativism. Total run time for that dive was 69 min, as we extended our 20 ft/6 m stop a lot longer to just hang and enjoy the reef. 

Deco Planner for Dive 2
Perdix Shearwater Dive profile using GF20/85

Roughly two hours after this dive, Deana complained of itchy stinging skin on her hips and abdomen; she described it as being like stinging nettles. She was not concerned as this felt like what she had in Egypt, so we put her on 100% O2 for about an hour and a half and all symptoms resolved. Deana and I considered this a minor issue, and we did not talk to anyone about the symptoms since they quickly resolved. No further issues were experienced that evening. 

It is here that human factors really played into the scenario. Deana and I made the mistake of not talking about the issue we had just experienced. We found out later the next day that Dr. Douglas Ebersole (cardiologist and consultant to Divers Alert Network) and the late Dr. Fiona Sharp (diving physician and anesthetist) were active participants of Buddy Dive Tek week. If we had spoken up, we most likely would have been able to talk to one or both of them and potentially decide not to dive the next morning. However, hindsight is 20/20, and we just didn’t feel the need to talk about it since Deana’s symptoms had been resolved. 

The next morning Deana felt fine and showed no rash or issues from the previous day. She wanted to do the planned trimix dive to 150 ft. It was the same profile as the previous day’s dive, and the dive went without issue. We had completed an 18-hour surface interval, and Deco Planner showed we could dive the same profile with no additional decompression obligation. 

Deco Planner confirmed our assumption of being clear after 18 hours

About 45 min to an hour post dive, Deana complained of similar skin pain and stinging, but this time it extended down her thighs. When we returned to shore, we shared her symptoms with the technical diving supervisor, Mr. G, and placed her back on medical O2 for about two hours. This resolved the stinging, but Deana showed edema in her thighs, hips, and abdomen and deeper tissue pain. She had resolved to sit by the pool and have a Corona while I took a nap beside her to see if it would resolve itself. 

We Called DAN

About an hour later Deana said, “We have DAN insurance, maybe we should call them and get their advice.” She placed a call to DAN, and within minutes was talking to Dr. Matías Nochetto. After a thorough assessment, Dr. Nochetto stated that, while they cannot diagnose over the phone, there were enough signs and symptoms to recommend we go into the ER and be assessed for DCI. DAN said that Bonaire had a hyperbaric chamber with an excellent team, and they gave us contact information for some of their team members. I cannot say enough good things about how DAN took so much worry away, offered a wealth of knowledge, and confirmed the direction we should take. 

We followed DAN’s advice and told Mr. G what the plan was. Mr. G told us that Dr. Douglas Ebersole was one of the guest speakers and an active diver, and he located him for us before we went to the ER. Dr. Ebersole performed a neurological assessment in the parking lot and talked to Deana about her symptoms. He concurred that she needed to be assessed at the ER, and he felt she was showing signs of lymphatic DCI; his opinion gave us peace of mind, that while her condition wasn’t critical, it should still be checked at the ER. 

After listening to Deana’s diving history over the last few years, he suggested undergoing a Transthoracic Echo (TTE) bubble study to rule out a Patent Forum Ovale (PFO), as this could explain her susceptibility to DCI. PFOs exist in almost a third of the population; although the condition isn’t rare, the condition can be activated due to the pressures exerted on our bodies at depth.

I drove Deana to the Bonaire ER, where the nursing team did a thorough assessment and showed great care, humor, and understanding. The ER nurse who took initial care of Deana was also a paramedic and technical diver and was wonderful to work with. After a full assessment, the ER doctor, who was not a diver, suggested that Deana made a poor choice in deciding to continue diving after a possible bout of skin bends. Deana later mentioned this comment to the ER nurse, adding that the doctor was not a diver and so likely didn’t understand. The ER nurse just smiled and agreed with her. 

We were then visited by one of the hyperbaric physicians, who completed Deana’s neurological exam, which showed no signs of neurological DCI. He diagnosed her with DCI of the lymphatic system and said that recompression would be necessary to treat her symptoms. He gave her a saline IV and a Table 5 treatment in the chamber.

Deana did her 2.5 hour run in the chamber and did not notice any improvement in the pain or edema. However, her doctor told us that the pain and swelling of lymphatic DCI does not go away right after a chamber ride like with other types of DCI; DAN confirmed this when they followed up with us the next morning. We were told that the edema could take a few weeks to normalize. By the next day the pain had decreased, and Deana felt she was recovering. She did not dive any more on this trip, but still had a happy, positive demeanor, and she was the life of the party: Everyone wanted to know all about her chamber ride and experience. 

Without undermining the risks associated with DCI, I want to mention the general positive outcome of this experience: we learned a great deal about Type 1 DCI, no one at our resort made Deana feel like she did something wrong, and everyone offered their support and understanding. 

In Search of a PFO

In closing, I want to offer clarity on some frequent inquiries we’ve received about this story. Some suspected that dehydration may have played a part, but as an RN, Deana had more than doubled her water intake and was always staying hydrated. While dehydration can be a contributing factor to DCI, we do not feel that it was an issue in this case. People also asked about her alcohol intake. By the time of her second DCI hit that required recompression, she had had three Coronas and one mixed drink in three days. Her alcohol consumption was not an issue.

After coming back to the United States, Deana saw Dr. James Holm, who is one of the leading hyperbaric physicians at Virginia Mason in Seattle, and was highly recommended by DAN. Dr. Holm did a follow up examination and agreed that, based on her history, dive profiles, and the lymphatic DCI experience, Deana should get a TTE bubble study to check for a PFO. Deana scheduled a TTE through Overlake Hospital’s Advanced Cardiac Imagery Department. The results revealed that she does, in fact, have a mild-to-moderate PFO.

This diagnosis was bittersweet, as it explained why Deana had frequent incidents of DCI while diving within limits, but it now puts Deana in a position to weigh the risks and determine her next course of action. Both Dr. Holms and Dr. Aviles, an interventional cardiologist who diagnosed the PFO, did not recommend rushing into a PFO repair, which they said was not a silver bullet that would guarantee a DCI-free future.

Both physicians offered several suggestions for Deana to consider: 

1. Stop diving, as this eliminates any risk of DCI in the future. For Deana this is not an option.

2. Modify her dive profile to be more conservative: diving only once per day, diving nitrox 32 but basing her profiles as if she was diving air, and/or extending her decompression profiles and safety stops.

3. Have the PFO repaired, knowing it is not a guarantee, and continue diving being as conservative as possible. 

Dr. Aviles did say that if Deana plans on continuing the frequency and type of diving she has been currently doing, getting the PFO repaired is probably her best option. These are all choices that divers who have been diagnosed with a PFO have to wrestle with, and there is no right or wrong answer. While Deana is considering her options, she will look to be more conservative with her dives. 

Like all types of higher risk sports, divers choose to accept the risk of being injured. For most divers, this is an acceptable risk, so we can enjoy the experiences we so cherish in exploring our aquatic environment. As divers we need to continually educate ourselves so we can make well-informed decisions that attempt to lower our risk of being injured. 

Deana and I highly recommend Gareth Lock’s work on human factors for understanding how our decisions play into potential diving accidents. However, even with research and advancements in technology at our disposal, we still don’t understand DCI. There is no guarantee, even if we follow all the rules, that we will not get bent unless, of course, we stop diving. It is a risk we all take when we submerge beneath the water. 

We have been amazed by the number of people we have met who discovered that they had a PFO in a way similar to Deana. Many have chosen to have their PFO corrected, though some have not, but all of them have been willing to share their experiences with us, helping us make a more informed decision. Next time you or a teammate shows any signs of DCI, tell someone and have it checked out. Sharing our experiences makes us safer, more educated divers. 

Photo by Myra Wisotzky

Additional Resources:

Gareth Lock, The Bend is Uninteresting…The Related Decisions Are Much More So


James D. Fraser is a PADI MSDT and NAUI Scuba Instructor and has been diving in the Pacific Northwest for over 30 years. James currently lives in Seattle, WA, with his wife and dive teammate Deana Fraser. Both James and Deana work at growing the local diving community and sharing their passion with all who are interested.  James recently embraced technical diving, becoming certified as a Technical 1 diver with Global Underwater Explorers. James and Deana have had opportunities to travel all over the world to experience their passion in amazing places such as Egypt and the Maldives. James currently works as a Cyber Security Director with a Fortune 500 Defense Contractor and has been a residential construction business owner as an Emergency Medical Technician (EMT). James wants to expand his knowledge in the diving field and grow his experience in technical diving.

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