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by Michael Menduno
Forty five-year-old British ex-pat Luke Inman has carved out a unique niche in the diving industry working as an award-winning filmmaker and photographer, and a dive shop owner based in La Paz, Mexico. Having graduated from the London International Film School, he has shot film and photographs for The BBC, Castle Rock Entertainment, Discovery Channel and Animal Planet, Lucas Films, the Mexican Tourist Bureau, The Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Geographic, as well as major brands like American Express and Playboy. He also won an MTV Latin America Best Video award.
Inman is also a passionate diver and dive educator who been teaching scuba for 22 years. In addition to being a PADI course director and Tec instructor trainer (IT), he is an IANTD, RAID and TDI mix and rebreather instructor, a DAN instructor trainer, HSE commercial diver Part 3 & 4, and is now training to become a GUE Fundies instructor. He has owned and operated Cortez Expeditions, a Five-Star Dive Centre in La Paz since 2015,
In the last few years, Inman, has turned his attention to “lifestyle” image making working with diving brands like Apex, Fourth Element, Neptunic, Halcyon, PADI, and others. If you are reading this blog, you have likely seen some of his compelling diving lifestyle images. We asked him to talk to us about his newly found focus on lifestyle and its importance to the business of diving.
InDepth: So, let me get this straight. You’ve recently completed three major diving “lifestyle” shoots and all of them are with women. No men at all. How did that come about? Are vendors just going to focus on women divers now, or is this, in fact, like your new dream job?
Luke Inman: Ha ha! Maybe a bit of both. First Jim Standing, at Fourth Element said that he wanted to empower women with their new line. PADI, whom I have been working with, wanted me to shoot a film for Women’s Dive Day. And then I was approached by Mark Messersmith and Lauren Fanning at Halcyon who wanted me to do a lifestyle shoot to promote their new back plate and colors for women, and or for men who fancy pink and teal. It was equipment-based but there were no diving shots involved.
I’m guessing your pretty comfortable working with that other gender.
It goes back to my early days of recreational diving. I think being small in stature, and always being the youngest, gave me a lot of empathy for the women. I would comment or give an opinion, even as an instructor, and the old, chauvinistic, macho divers would class me with the women. I would get sort of pushed aside. “No, you go with the females. You’re too young, and you don’t know anything.” Of course, the reality is I was already a commercial diver with hundreds of hours before I ever did my PADI open water, much less instructor course.
You had your baptism of fire in high-end lifestyle photography in the surf and snowboarding industry working with Quiksilver. How does that translate to diving? Do you find that lifestyle marketing is beginning to resonate with the diving industry?
Lifestyle photography is something new that has emerged with social media and has quickly become an essential part of marketing and promotion for many companies. I think that the dive training agencies from PADI to GUE are just beginning to realize how important it is in branding, that is promoting the lifestyle rather than just training. And you’re starting to see that with some of the manufacturers like Fourth Element, Halcyon and others as well.
As an example of the power of lifestyle branding, I think we could walk out on the street right now, and find somebody wearing a Patagonia or North Face T-shirt or jacket that has never climbed a mountain. You could also likely find someone wearing a Quiksilver Tee that has never surfed or seen snow. Social media helps with that as well.
Conversely, I doubt seriously that you could find anyone wearing a PADI, or GUE, Scubapro, Sherwood or Poseidon T-shirt, or any article of clothing from the diving industry who wasn’t a diver, because people that aren’t divers just don’t think it’s cool enough. Fourth Element may become the exception.
Why is that?
To me, Fourth Element is the only brand that reaches outside of the dive industry in terms of fashion and lifestyle. They are in like some 200 FatFace active lifestyle stores in Great Britain and that buyer doesn’t care that there’s not even water in some of the photographs. The store buyers just want to know that Fourth Element divers don’t model bikinis for Billabong. Obviously, we go with the aesthetic. So on a very small scale, Fourth Element is a featherweight boxer fighting in the heavyweight division.
Ha! I like that! And I think Fourth Element’s imagery is always James Dean cool. Why haven’t other manufacturers picked up on that?
I think one of the problems is that the manufacturers seem so hell-bent on just producing and selling products rather than lifestyle. You can see that at DEMA [the annual diving industry trade show]. I think that the equipment should almost play second fiddle to the lifestyle and the clothing.
It’s clothing that saved the surf industry. They don’t make any money on neoprene and fiberglass surfboards. The surf industry is a billion-dollar industry because it’s become a fashion industry.
Now I don’t think the dive industry needs to become fashion driven, by any stretch of the imagination, but we do need to add lifestyle to grow. And I think it’s become important to the agencies, because the training is more unified across agencies.
Meaning its harder to differentiate training among agencies? I certainly see PADI moving in the lifestyle direction.
That’s been part of my work as well. I’m responsible for some of that.
On the three lifestyle shoots we’ve been talking about, you used some of your staff as models. How did that come about?
I was consulting with Fourth Element. And I’ll be perfectly honest with you, Jim [Standing] turned around to me one day and he went, two of the women that work for you have got a lot of credibility as divers. They’re both tech divers. Karla is PADI divemaster. Afelandra is a PADI Ambassador and she’s has taken Fundamentals. They’re both also very photogenic. Do us a favor and don’t charge us too much money, but can you produce something with them within our budget?
And it kind of snowballed from there because we wanted to make sure that the models that we were using were credible as divers. And as I was saying, there also has to be an aesthetic to satisfy buyers outside of the dive industry. So we tried to kill as many birds as we could with one stone and also to do it as cheaply as possible.
And store buyers have been happy with the result?
It’s been very positive. Funny story. One of the Fourth Element reps called on a buyer in the Midwest. The female buyer pulled out the catalog and pointed at a Fourth Element photo and said when are you going to stop using these skinny models? Women in my store don’t associate with this girl. It’s not fair. She’s like a perfect 10.
And the sales rep was like, “that’s Karla. She’s a crossfit champion and a divemaster. She’s got a Master’s degree in fish ecology and regularly dives to 200 feet.” And the buyer was just blown away by this information and said, “why aren’t you promoting this?” Slowly and surely we are; Fourth Element is trying to get that message out.
They’re not just pretty faces; they’re accomplished people in dive world. Do you think it comes through that these are real divers and not just models?
I think that we need to start telling the girls’ stories a bit more, and that’s the beauty of social media. However, what’s very important and does come across is the camaraderie of us all working and shooting together. Everyone is happy and most important, the girls are comfortable wearing the gear because they are divers. With some of the mainstream brands, you can tell that the models are not divers or at least very inexperienced ones.
I really like the idea of showing real people doing real things. But unfortunately, I think we are still at a stage where they have to be very photogenic for it to be a hook. Still the emphasis needs to be on the product, the diving and the lifestyle, and just cool people using the product as opposed to, here’s a pretty girl, let’s slap a jacket on her.
It has to inspire!
It’s very important that we inspire people. We had a young dive master candidate approach us and her whole motivation to get into diving was seeing what these girls do for a lifestyle; you can be a strong woman and still look good. I think that’s helped with Fourth Element making equipment and clothing that can stand up and compete with Patagonia and North Face, although on a smaller scale.
I heard that Fourth Element co-founder Paul Strike showed images from your Ocean Positive bikini shoot at his talk at the United Nations World Ocean Day celebration last year.
I was really proud of that. I’m also proud to have been recognized as a lifestyle photographer, because there aren’t many in our industry!
Are there any unique challenges to making diving lifestyle photography?
Within the diving industry, it’s definitely budget. I have shot a bikini special for FHM magazine. I have also shot for Playboy and of course Quiksilver. And the resources you’re given when you shoot for Quiksilver or Playboy or FHM are completely different than a shoot for Aqua Lung, Halcyon or Fourth Element. [Inman rolls his eyes] It’s very, very different!
Ha. Having worked in Silicon Valley, Wall Street, and in the diving business for more than a few decades, I completely understand.
Another issue that we suffer from is this: if you put a diving image online, even if it’s aimed at non-divers, divers are going to criticize it. Someone is going to notice that the low-pressure hose is not connected properly, or a D-ring is too far forward, or her knees are too low in trim position. In almost all cases, the criticism is from men.
There are somes times when dive world feels like a combat sport.
I would like to see more cohesiveness and solidarity in the dive industry and that’s one of the reasons I think we need more women; because they have a far better approach. Men are competitive and are quick to apply ego. They are quick to attack. “Oh look, look at him, his buoyancy is no good. Or that agency is no good.”
Women tend to be more nurturing and I think we need to nurture one another better. As one of my friends and mentors, Paul Toomer [training director of RAID] has been saying to everyone who will listen, we need to stop attacking each other. It’s hurting the dive industry.
I think Toomer is spot-on!
I remember Jim [Standing] saying that he went on a dive boat on the south coast without a buddy and had a standup battle with a diver. I won’t say which agency but they were wearing Jet Fins. He wouldn’t dive with Jim because he didn’t have a long hose. “You know, we are both capable divers,” Jim offered, “let’s just go diving.”
I think there’s quite a bit of competitiveness that is ego driven and unnecessary in our industry, which is one of the reasons I like working predominantly with girls. I just did an instructor course that, out of the nine candidates, seven were girls and only two guys. And the whole dynamic was so much more nurturing and about helping one another.
Some estrogen with that gas mix?
I think we need a big injection of the feminine in the dive industry!
Overall the diving industry is pretty conservative. Have you any amusing or unusual incidents where you pushed the images a bit too far, where clients or consumers gave you a hard time.
[Inman laughs] There’s been couple of incidents. I was shooting for PADI Women’s Dive Day. The plan was for me to film this beautiful Latina girl, who’s a PADI course director snorkeling in a bikini. And I started filming her and thought, we could never use this because, err she’s, I believe the expression would be, very well-endowed. And I took the footage back to the boat and I was like, we’re going to have to reshoot this with her in a Lycra vest. And the PADI people were like, what do you mean? And I showed them the film and they were like, “Oh yeah, that definitely has to be reshot.”
Hmm, too much cleavage?
Haha. yeah. I also remember one of the images we shot for Fourth Element for Instagram got this huge complaint that we used a sexist image that was belittling to women. It was a photo of a woman in a bikini sitting in the back of the boat checking a gauge. You can’t see her backside, you can’t see anything. She’s just in a bikini. It’s very sporting. The screen grab of this image did the rounds among the Fourth Element women and everyone went, “What? How is that exploiting women?”
Again, I think we come back to the fact, there are quite a few crazies out there. There are a whole lot of people that will bag an image, because it was posted by PADI. I’ve also heard people from other tech agencies reacting to a GUE image with, “They’re the scientologists of the dive world. Don’t drink the Kool-Aid or you will all end up dressing the same.”
Oh yes, I’ve heard that one. However, it feels like things are slowly starting to change.
I think people in the dive industry are finally starting to realize that the competition for GUE isn’t IANTD or TDI. The competition for PADI isn’t SSI or RAID. It’s mountain biking and snowboarding and surfing and everything that is more easily accessible than entry into open water.
Toomer turned me on to that. The cycling market is HUGE! In fact, all of the sports you mention are way bigger than diving, and are generating way more money. However, most of the surface of the planet is water. That’s our conundrum.
The word is solidarity. We need more solidarity and a little bit more acceptance. That’s why I find it really encouraging to see companies willing to collaborate on some big campaigns that went through out the industry. To have, for example, Halcyon say, , we want to be on the Fourth Element shoot, even though Halcyon and GUE have this great relationship with SANTI.
We were inundated with our shoot at TEKDive USA, everybody wanted their products on it, Sub-Gravity, Aqua Lung, and Halcyon. And of course, manufacturers fall all over themselves to get their gear on a PADI shoot. It’s just nice to see that there is an understanding of how all boats float on a rising tide.
What could we do if we all worked together?
I think in the end, it comes down to inspiring people to dive. That’s what I want to do. In his speech at this year’s DEMA show [PADI CEO] Drew Richardson said that PADI and their agency were focused on making diving bigger, making the pie bigger and bringing people into diving. And they are doing it!
Just about everyone that knocks on my dive center door always says the same thing. They say, “I want to do my PADI.” PADI is the brand that’s bringing people in. And I think other brands, like Aqua Lung, Apex, Sherwood, all of the brands, should legitimately be looking at doing that too.
In addition to PADI, I see that you are now offering GUE classes at your store.
I have to say that the two agencies that I have found the most welcoming with less ego and less attitude are PADI and GUE, which is one of the reasons we have decided to focus on those two. I am very happy and content to teach PADI and I can’t wait to start teaching GUE as well.
Ok, I understand that GUE is not suddenly going to sit around a table with PADI and start cross-promoting, but I do think there needs to be more solidarity when people meet on dive boats, at resorts, or when they are working on projects.
Header Image: Photo of Charlotte Holmes by Luke Inman for Fourth Element.
Karla Rodriguez – PADI Divemaster, Masters degree in Reef Fish Ecology, Discovered hybridization in Parrot fish, Tech Diver, Fitness Instructor.
Charlotte Holmes – Former Miss England, MTV UK Presenter, Adidas London yoga and cross fit instructor. PADI Divemaster.
Afelandra Gonzalez – PADI Ambassadiver, Marine Biologist, PADI MSDT, TDI Intro to Tec Inst, GUE Fundies, discovered and named new species of Nudibranch.
Ivonne Arambula – PADI Open Water, Free Diver, Mother, Yoga and Crossfit Instructor.
Michael Menduno is InDepth’s executive editor and, an award-winning reporter and technologist who has written about diving and diving technology for 30 years. He coined the term “technical diving.” His magazine “aquaCORPS: The Journal for Technical Diving”(1990-1996), helped usher tech diving into mainstream sports diving. He also produced the first Tek, EUROTek, and AsiaTek conferences, and organized Rebreather Forums 1.0 and 2.0. Michael received the OZTEKMedia Excellence Award in 2011, the EUROTek Lifetime Achievement Award in 2012 and the TEKDive USA Media Award in 2018.
Brits Brew Beer Booty
What do you get when you combine British divers’ proclivity for shipwreck exploration with their strong affinity for beer? A tasty treasure hunt on the “Wallachia” that resulted in swilling 126-year old reconstituted British beer. GUE Scotland’s detective chief inspector Andy Pilley recounts the tale.
by Andy Pilley
Images courtesy of A. Pilley
Header Image: GUE Scotland’s brewmeisters enjoying their brew (L to R) Top: Owen Flowers, Andy Pilley, Wayne Heelbeck. Middle: Steve Symington, A. Pilley, O. Flowers, Bottom: W. Heelbeck, Sergej Maciuk, S. Symington
“Give my people plenty of beer, good beer, and cheap beer, and you will have no revolution among them.”Queen Victoria
I never thought when I started diving 10 years ago, that one day I would be able to sit down for a pint of beer with the team from GUE Scotland recreated from a brew that has been hidden under the waves for 126 years. Let me explain.
The Wallachia was a single screw cargo steamer that was owned by William Burrell & Son of Glasgow, and employed on regular trips between Glasgow and the West Indies. On 29th September, 1895 she left Queen’s Dock, Glasgow at 10am bound for Trinidad and Demerara. On board was a valuable general cargo including whisky, gin, beer, acids, glassware, and earthenware plus building materials and footwear. By 1pm that afternoon she had settled on the seabed of the Clyde Estuary after colliding with another ship in a fog bank, she was forgotten until 1977 when a local sub-aqua club rediscovered the wreck site.
The wreck of the Wallachia lies on an even keel in approximately 34 metres of water on a sandy seabed. The wreck itself is largely intact and has six holds in total, three forward and three aft. In the rearmost hold there are thousands of bottles of beer, some still inscribed with the name of the maker, McEwans of Glasgow. This is where myself and the team from GUE Scotland enter the story.
The Wreck of the Wallachia
The Wallachia is one of the more accessible sites on the west coast of Scotland, where we carry out most of our diving. Depending on weather and tidal conditions, visibility on the wreck can be +10m/33 ft on a very good day or less than 2m/6 ft if there has been a lot of rain due to the amount of particulate in the water. Other elements to consider are the tide as this can vary in its intensity, as well as surrounding boat traffic. The wreck lies in close proximity to a ferry route and care must be taken not to dive when the ferry is closeby. However despite the challenges, the wreck is very rewarding and offers a diver plenty of places to explore and items to look at.
The main point of interest for most has been the rearmost hold, where the bottles of whisky and beer were stored. The majority of the whisky was removed in the 1980’s however a few bottles can be found on occasion, depending where you look. What remains are thousands of bottles of beer, still with the corks and contents intact. Over the course of 2018 & 2019, the team at GUE Scotland dived on the wreck and recovered a number of bottles from the hold.
After a chance discussion with a friend at dinner one night, I was given contact details for a company called Brewlab, which is based in Sunderland in the north east of England. Brewlab specialise in the provision of specialist brewing training, as well as laboratory services such as quality assurance, product development, chemical/microbiology testing as well as long term research options. I made contact with Keith Thomas, the Director of Brewlab, to discuss whether he would be interested in analysing the beer and investigating whether it could be recreated. Needless to say the proposal piqued his interest and arrangements were made for the bottles to be shipped to his lab.
Unbeknownst to me, the recovery of historical beers is rare, due to various sources of degradation/contamination which can affect any residual microbial cells and chemical components left in the beer that were used as part of the brewing process. So these samples are a valuable source of information on past brewing and microbiology. Over the course of 2019/2020, Keith and I kept in regular contact over the progress of the investigations and the full analysis of the beer has recently been published.
A Brewing Interest
Between 1850 and 1950, the application of scientific principles to brewing was becoming increasingly prevalent and microbiology was playing an increasingly important role. A pertinent issue in brewing microbiology around 1900 was the application of pure Saccharomyces yeast cultures developed by Hansen at the Carlsberg laboratory in 1888. These were readily adopted by continental breweries as providing more controlled production and purer beers. Application to UK brewing was, however, less positively received, in part because of the belief that British beers possessed particular flavours arising from mixed yeast cultures and, specifically, the involvement of Brettanomyces species. This was especially believed to be essential for the character of ‘stock’ ales which were matured for extended periods.
While a number of breweries did try pure culture yeasts, UK brewing was resistant to change and, with the intervention of World War I, retained its indigenous yeast cultures. Since the 1940’s a more biotechnological approach to fermentation demonstrated the value of pure culture and was progressively applied to the larger breweries developing at that time.
During the formative period of brewery microbiology after Pasteur, brewing yeast were identified as Saccharomyces species based on morphological features of shape, filamentous propensity and spore characteristics. Non brewing, ‘wild’ yeast was recognised and termed ‘Torula’ if non-sporulating. Of these Brettanomyces strains were identified as contributing important character to stock ales. It is also clear from brewing texts that bacteria were recognised as spoilage organisms in beer, as had been initially demonstrated by Pasteur in 1863. These species were mostly categorised as bacilli and typically portrayed as rods and associated with sarcina sickness – generally producing sourness. Some studies, nevertheless, identified lactic acid bacteria as indigenous components of standard beers.
Contemporary breweries are increasingly interested in using novel microbiology, either unconventional yeast strains or mixes of species and strains for sour and natural products. Identifying the specific strains and species of yeast and bacteria present in Victorian and Edwardian beers is directly relevant to this and has particular value if cultures of authentic microorganisms can be retrieved. Reports of retrieved historic brewery microbiology are limited but hold interesting promise for identifying novel microorganisms.
The specific parameters of the analysis are contained in a published research paper, “Preliminary microbiological and chemical analysis of two historical stock ales from Victorian and Edwardian brewing.”
As I mentioned, the primary objective of the analysis was to confirm whether detail could be provided on the original brewing ingredients and the fermentation microbiology. The analysis confirmed the use of Brettanomyces/Dekkera bruxellensis and Debaryomyces hansenii, which are brewing and fermentation yeasts respectively. The presence of Debaryomyces is interesting as this genus has not been noted as a historic feature of historic brewing, but has been identified in spontaneous fermentations, for example in Belgian lambic beers. Although the strain was reported to the brewing industry in 1906, it has not featured as a major contributor to beer fermentations since.
The analysis has also provided relevant information of the beer character and has confirmed that the beer recovered from the Wallachia was a stout, close to style expectations of the time and had an alcohol content of c. 7.5%. The colour gravity was high, resulting in a much darker beer however a much lower level of bitterness. Again this was typical style of the time and differs from other modern stouts.
More interestingly is the presence of various types of bacteria, which will likely have been picked up during the brewing process. The table below lists these for reference. Needless to say, historic brewing was not a sterile process in comparison to modern methods!
|Bacillus licheniformis||Plant and soil bacterium|
|Finegoldia magna||Commensal skin bacterium|
|Fusobacterium sp.||Possible pathogenic bacterium|
|Kocuria rosea||Possible urinary tract pathogen|
|Mogibacterium pumilum||Possible oral cavity bacterium|
|Shigella sonnei||Enteric pathogen|
|Staphylococcus epidermidis||Commensal skin bacterium|
|Stenotrophomonas maltophilia||Soil bacterium|
|Varibaculum cambriense||Possible pathogenic bacterium|
Table 1: The bacteria found in the Wallachia beer bottles
Due to the relatively stable conditions on the wreck, being in near darkness and at a relatively cold temperature (between 6º–14ºC/43º-57ºF depending on the time of year), the live yeast structures within the beer were protected from sources of stress and allowed them to survive over the past 126 years. Luckily, Keith was able to extract these samples and begin to recultivate the yeast, specifically the Debaryomyces, with the hope of being able to rebrew the beer.
Just before Christmas, I finally received word from Keith that he had completed a trial brew and seven bottles of the brew were on their way to me. A few excitement laden days later and a nondescript box arrived at my office with the beer inside. I called the guys on our Facebook group chat to show them the case and got each bottle packaged up and sent out to them.
A few days later, once everyone had received their sample we got together again to try the samples. There was an air of excitement after the two years it had taken us to get to this point, the most anticipated pint ever! I’m no expert in the flavour profiles of beer so you will have to forgive me for my relatively basic analysis. In summary, I got flavours of coffee and chocolate and there was a relatively low level of carbonation, which made it very drinkable. The rest of the team got similar flavours, the only complaint being there wasn’t more to try!
There will of course be slight differences in flavour since we don’t normally add the bacteria listed above as ingredients. However, the recipe we have is as close as we can make it to the original stock version.
The next steps for the project are to carry out further investigation on the characteristics of the Debaryomyces yeast strain in order to determine their suitability for fermentation and potential use in future brewing production. We are making approaches to various commercial breweries in order to discuss future commercialisation of the recipe and produce the brew on large scale. With the story behind the original recipe, we’re hopeful that the provenance would be a key selling point to consumers. It is my hope that the recovery of these samples will open up new possibilities for different types of beers to be developed, and offer something different for beer enthusiasts to try.
I have also found out that there are other types of beer to be found on the wreck, specifically an IPA style. Once we’re allowed to begin diving again, I am hoping to return to the Wallachia and recover some of these bottles so we can carry out the same analysis and keep the project moving forward.
In the mean-time, cheers!
The Brewlab Podcast, Episode 2 (March 30, 2021): Lost Beers Recreated from Shipwreck Bottles
Andy Pilley is a Chartered Surveyor, team member of GUE Scotland, passionate wreck & cave diver and Ghost Fishing UK team diver. Andy started diving with the Scottish Sub-Aqua club in 2011 and began diving with GUE in 2018. Andy dives on the east and west coasts of Scotland where there is a rich maritime history and an abundance of wrecks to be explored. He has a passion for project diving and is developing objectives for a number of sites with the GUE Scotland team. He hopes to assist on the Mars Project and with the WKPP in the future.
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