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By Amanda White
Header Photo by Paige Swan, London Diving Centre
“Where are all the young divers?” I feel like this is a common question I hear at almost every dive event I attend. Being a “young” diver myself, the “older” divers often ask me why I think there are not more young people joining the sport. But, is there really an age gap in the industry? Maybe the youngsters are just hiding…
According to PADI certification data, which provides a broad view of the overall global market, the number of younger divers (let’s define this as under 30 years old), has steadily increased every year for the last five years. Divers under 30 represented 43% of global certifications in 2019, up from 26% in 2014. This is good news for the longevity of the industry if we can keep these divers interested in the sport. But that is key.
Divers under 30 represented 43% of global certifications in 2019, up from 26% in 2014.
This is where Robert Thomas is to the rescue. The 20-year-old British instructor wanted to connect young divers through the recently launched Facebook group Young Divers International. This group seeks to connect and inspire the younger generation of divers by giving them a place to share their stories and a way to find dive buddies all over the world. I recently had a chat with Rob about why he started the group and his perspective on the industry.
InDepth: So how did Young Divers International come about?
Robert Thomas: It first sort of came about after I spoke at one of the Birmingham dive shows in 2018. So, it’s been in the cards for a little while really. But during the lockdown period especially, I had a bit of time on my hands, so I was trying to be as productive as possible. I thought the best way to start would be just using social media. And then it snowballed. And it’s getting some quite positive reviews which I’m really happy about, and it’s mainly just to encourage youngsters to promote what they’re doing, and hopefully that in turn will encourage others to do the same.
When I found out about it, I joined the group and scrolled through people’s posts. And it was pretty cool to see how many people are young and passionate about diving. I think this brings hope to the future of the industry.
It’s really cool to see. I’m over the moon with the rate at which it is growing. And I was really blown away by just how positive everyone was about it when it first happened. I was quite shocked really. It was quite a nice feeling.
I think you found something that was needed and fulfilled the need.
Definitely. And when I first set it up, we first had a group of youngsters just sort of bouncing ideas off of each other about what they would like to see happen in the industry. Grace Westgarth was a part of the group, and I gave her the design for the logo, but she was the one that made it on that front, so she did a really good job there. She deserves a shout out for that one. Basically it’s not a solo mission. It’s a united front.
You’ve been in the dive industry your whole life because of your dad [British Cave Diving Group training officer Michael Thomas]. Did your personal experience play into why you thought YDI was needed?
I thought it was needed because I was getting bored of getting on dive boats, in the UK especially, and for a lot of years and being the only young face on the boat. So I wanted to try to balance that out a little bit. Because obviously without younger divers coming through, by the time I get to the older generation’s age, I’m not going to have an industry to work in.. But it is definitely changing. Nowadays there are more and more younger divers at all different levels. Be that either bubble blowing, sort of scuba diving for the first time, or even getting into the realms of technical diving. So it is going in the right direction, in my opinion, which is really nice to see. Everybody needs a bit of Zen right now, and I feel like diving is that.
“Everybody needs a bit of Zen right now, and I feel like diving is that.”
So what are your goals for the group?
Basically promoting what young divers under 30 are doing. But it’s not an exclusive club, because obviously without the experience of the older generation, we are off to a no-starter. So it really does aim to incorporate all divers together to try and push this forward. Not just making a little exclusive club of youngsters. So it’s all good and well promoting high-end diving for youngsters, but they do need to be held back on occasion and just basically balanced out by the divers who have learned through years of experience and paved the way for us.
I would also like to start running trips, not necessarily in the name of YDI, but obviously mixing that in. And if we can get a boat full of young divers, that’s a great way of promoting the dive scene as a whole.
Are you seeing the trips as UK-based or worldwide?
Big picture, I’d love worldwide because there’s lots of places I’d like to go diving. I’m looking at doing trips down to Cornwall to start with. Obviously with everything at the minute (COVID-19), and being UK-based, the diving we have is pretty good, and I’m going to capitalize on that. Then hopefully once travel restrictions are less complex, I’d like to do a trip out to North Carolina and dive some of the submarines out there as well.
That will be a lot of fun. So, what advice would you give to new divers?
Definitely give it a go. If you’ve never dived before, it is probably going to be one of the best things you’ve ever done because who doesn’t want to breathe underwater like a fish? That’s cool in its own right. But also, don’t be disheartened if you don’t get things straight away because it does take time and effort. But the more you put into it the more you are going to get out of it as well. So it’s a bit of a trade-off in that respect.
And don’t be afraid to ask for help as well. Try and set your goals realistically and enjoy the diving you’re doing at the time. Even if you’re seeing people blasting off into the distance playing with tech toys and such things like that, there is no rush for any of it. Just take your time and enjoy what you’re doing would be my advice.
What would you like to see in the future from the dive industry?
To be fair, I would like to see more unity between key industry players. If I had a vision of the dive industry, it would be really nice if we had a sort of unified goal of just going diving! Everybody’s got different things to offer within the dive industry, so if we were to mix them all into one pot, it would create a pretty great thing for the whole scene, present and future. The industry is changing on a fairly regular basis at the moment due to some unfortunate circumstances (COVID) mixing things up, so now more than ever it is the time to pull together, creating positive change wherever humanly possible.
“Everybody’s got different things to offer within the dive industry, so if we were to mix them all into one pot, it would create a pretty great thing for the whole scene, present and future.”
I agree with you. I think that if we want to bring in new people, that’s the way to do it.
Yeah, definitely. If we could come out on the other side of COVID stronger than what we were before, I think we’d be in a really good place. And people are looking for different activities to try. They’ve probably been locked up. I know, in the UK at least, a lot of people’s screen time has increased dramatically, so potentially getting outside in nature and enjoying what the planet has to offer whilst they still can is going to be a good thing. Diving is a good social distancing activity. You’re underwater and with your own mask and breathing set. You can’t really get much better than that, can you?
Your dad recently wrote an article for us about cave diving in the UK. Do you feel like that group has done a good job attracting young people?
Yeah, absolutely. I am the secretary of the Somerset section in the Cave Diving Group in the UK, so I’ve kind of climbed the ranks relatively quickly in that respect. But there was a job role opening and I was like, it would be nice to have a young person keeping all the oldies in check. That being said, in the last two years we’ve had a load more new trainees come in. There are probably as many active young divers in the group now as there are of the older generation, if not more. In the Somerset section at least, we’re doing a pretty good job of increasing young divers and young cavers, basically because the group is not just about diving in that respect.
Why do you think it’s so difficult to bring in young people, or the next generation, into diving?
“A simple answer to that would be cost. Say you want a twin set and a scooter. Most young diver are going to struggle to afford that.”
A simple answer to that would be cost. Say you want a twin set and a scooter. Most young diver are going to struggle to afford that. So without the support of either parental help or external forces, being agencies, it’s quite an expensive sport to get into. Once you’re in it, it’s not so bad because you’ve got your kit and it lasts for a long time because we have good quality manufacturers. But the initial setup cost for a new diver isn’t cheap.
Other than money, do you think there are other obstacles that are in the way for people?
There are obviously the logistical aspects. Diving as a hobby, on a regular basis, does take some dedication. Like my friends, for example: if we go out to the pub the night before, and then I say to them, ‘oh yeah, who fancies waking up at 7:30 in the morning to go diving?’, I can tell immediately the initial start of 7:30 is going to put a number of people off which is always quite a funny thing. So obviously effort and dedication. But once you’ve worked out how good it is, then you are set really and the dedication kind of falls into place.
Are there any specific people that come to mind, I guess young people more specifically, that you think are going to be pretty influential in the direction of diving?
Yes. To be fair, all of the Rolex scholars I’ve met have been some incredibly well-rounded and inspirational people with the stuff they’re doing. To name just a few young divers who I think are making a difference. Mae Darricott, Joe Gurney, Eleanor Stewart, and Will Cooper. Along with every young dive professional for showing others what’s possible and doing their part to inspire the next generation of divers.
Mae – for continued work towards conservation and marine biology. Working closely with manufacturers helping drive the industry at its core, along with many others who have passed through the Rolex scholarship scheme.
Joe- for being a flagship instructor and instructor trainer for SSI. Leading a large number of youthful divers into the underwater realm. Promoting not only training but actually diving when not training.
Ellie- being a brand ambassador and a high level tech instructor at a young age. Working in different roles around the dive industry leading to a clear level of experience, again working to progress the industry from the inside.
Will – in some ways similar to me, started diving at a young age not only going diving but also in and around the industry learning its quirks and adapting them to suit. Continuing to rise on both personal and instructor levels of diving. Trying hard to lower the average age of the dive industry.
What is important to note with all of the above is they go the extra mile to inspire the passion that gets people hooked on diving. And it’s that passion that changes someone from a holiday diver into a weekly or monthly diver. The lure of adventure and the call of the unknown need to be sparked. Once that flame burns it ain’t easy to extinguish.
And then obviously, you are a young diver and instructor who is making a difference, too. Is there anything specific that you think that the dive industry should change or do differently to reach a younger audience?
I think it’s definitely improved, but I’ll go back to diving fanatics. Diving should be fun at the end of the day. Obviously there are safety regulations that need to be abided to because for obvious reasons being underwater is not necessarily conducive to life. But, that being said, if you’re an instructor teaching a course, it’s your job to not just cover the necessary skills but also to encourage the passion and show how fun it can be. Because I feel, in some cases, you might get chucked off a boat, do some skills and then surface again. And that is not an accurate representation of what diving is or should be about.
Can you tell us a little bit about what you are up to right now?
I’m making up for lost time at the minute. I’ve been all over the place. I was teaching. I did some DPV and twin set training the other day. Basically my own diving, I’m working toward my mod three on a JJ, so I’ve been busy learning the theory of that over lockdown. So that’s kept me entertained and my mind a bit more active. And obviously, I personally would quite like to get into the cave instructor side of things, but I’m not quite old enough for that yet.
Meet Some of the YDI Members:
Location: South East London
Certifications: Master Diver, Sidemount Diver, Deep Diver, Adaptive Diver, etc. (DM in progress)
“As a Girls That Scuba Ambassador, my main focus now is to encourage more women of any age into this amazing sport. Especially in the UK, as there are so many amazing dive sites here that people don’t know about. I have recently started sidemount diving and I love how it has opened up so many doors for me. I can see myself going further down the technical route in the future.
Eventually, my goal is to be an underwater cinematographer. This also will allow me to spread the very important message of ocean conservation to the younger generation.”
Location: New Zealand
Certifications: GUE Fundamentals – Tech Pass, GUE Rec 3, PADI Open Water Scuba Instructor
Annika is an impassioned ocean enthusiast and was selected as the first global scholar for Global Underwater Explorers NextGen Scholarship. She is a Senior Environmental Educator for BLAKE, managing their ocean education program, BLAKE NZ-VR. In the last year and a half, she has taught over 30,000 students about the ocean and the threats facing our marine environment. Annika holds a Master of Architecture, and in 2019, she was awarded the Westpac NZ Women of Influence Youth Award.
“Diving is my sanctuary. It’s where the world stops spinning and it’s ‘my’ time where I can explore, think and breathe. I can let my mind be quiet whilst surrounded by the most incredible beauty and my favourite part is, I am often surrounded by my best friends and divers that are equally passionate. I have had my best memories around the ocean and this has made me determined to share these experiences with the people around me. My passion is to ignite a sense of wonder with what lies below the surface within people and open their eyes to the beauty that I have seen.
It’s not a competition—it’s not about how many qualifications you have, lasting longer on a tank than everyone else, or how many dives you have done. Instead, be curious and ask questions, if there’s something you’re concerned about, talk about it. I found having a dive mentor (this could be a dive instructor or someone in the diving community that you respect) was really helpful and the most important thing is to make sure you’re having fun! “
Age: 25 years
Certifications: Advanced Open Water Diver, SSI Shark Diver
At the age of 10 years I did my first “bubble maker”. At 12, I received my Junior Open Water Diver. Both of my parents are scuba divers. I think that’s why I have this big big passion for the ocean. Four years ago I started to work as an underwater cameraman. For one year I have worked as a freelancer around the world with my camera. Normally I work for my own project, called Feed Your Dreams, which is a company who makes promotional videos for tour operators. In addition to that, I work for broadcasters and organizations for ocean protection.
My big passion is sharks. For a few years I filmed them around the world and was always excited by them. My biggest goal would be to find a way to protect sharks in a way that makes it possible to show them to my kids one day. It always makes me happy and sad at the same time to dive with sharks, because I know how threatened they are. And if we don’t change our way of fishing and work to protect them, they will be gone forever. My biggest advice for anybody who has never dived before? Do it! And do it now because every second we lose a piece of our beautiful ocean.
The biggest challenge for me is taking the perfect shot of an underwater scene while not getting too impressed by it.”
Certifications: PADI Divemaster, TDI Sidemount with Advanced Nitrox/ Decompression Procedures.
“I did my first dive in 2015 when I was 14 years old. A year and a half ago I started my DM training and got into technical diving. I got into sidemount diving because it seemed to give me the most for my investment. And there it is, the biggest challenge. Financing diving, and especially tech diving, as a student is a massive challenge. My advice to any young divers would be to get in touch with your local dive centers and show people how enthusiastic you are. You will benefit from their knowledge and they might even help you out with your expenses. Be creative and offer people to help. From simply offering to carry tanks and getting yours filled for free up to managing the social media of dive shops. Now I finance some of my diving by selling custom line markers and other 3D printed diving gadgets like dust caps.”
Feel free to visit my website: divingdaniel.com
Certifications: PADI Divemaster
“After starting my diving journey in 2013, my love for the ocean has only grown stronger. Diving gives me a glimpse into a world full of wonder and allows me to witness the power of nature with a sense of exhilarating freedom. The art I create is an extension of that feeling and gives me an opportunity to articulate the magic; hopefully evoking the same burning passion in others. My mission is to spread awareness of what lies beneath the surface and help to educate others as to why it is so vital to protect the ocean and inspire others to dive into this unimaginable world.”
Amanda White is the managing editor and designer for InDepth and the Marketing Director for Global Underwater Explorers. Her life’s goal is to make a positive impact on how we, as humans, treat the environment. Whether that means working to minimize her own footprint or working on a broader scale to protect wildlife, the oceans, and other bodies of water. Amanda is a GUE recreational diver and volunteers for Project Baseline and Clean Up the Lake.
Undergoing PFO Surgery as a Team: Deana & Bert’s Excellent Adventure
People like to give GUE a hard time for their uncompromising focus on team diving. But a pair of divers from GUE Seattle has taken it to a new level: getting their PFOs fixed together. The team that bends together, mends together? Instructor and tech diver James D. Fraser willingly tells the tale.
by James D. Fraser
Header photo courtesy of Dr. Doug Ebersole
This is the follow-up to the story that ran in InDepth December, 2019: No Fault DCI? The Story of My Wife’s PFO
It has been a year since my wife Deana had a decompression illness (DCI) hit in Bonaire requiring her to do a Table 5 recompression profile in a hyperbaric chamber. At the time of my previous article’s publication, Deana had a Transthoracic Echocardiogram (TTE) bubble study and found out she did have a small to moderate patent foramen ovale (PFO). Two physicians offered similar options for Deana to consider when it came to her diving activities:
- Stop diving, as this eliminates any risk of DCI in the future.
- Modify her dive profiles to be more conservative: diving only once per day, diving nitrox 32 using air tables, and/or extending her decompression profiles and safety stops.
- Have the PFO repaired, knowing it is not a guarantee, and continue diving as conservatively as possible.
Deana had initially decided to wait on doing a PFO closure until after our daughter’s wedding in March 2020, but she realized very quickly that being “conservative” was not in her nature. Deana had already returned to diving within 12 days of her hyperbaric chamber ride. In the 46 days since her treatment, Deana had already done another 15 dives to depths of 90 feet; being conservative really was proving to not be an option for her. Diving was just too much a part of her life.
In mid-November, Deana reached out to cardiologist and tech diving instructor Dr. Doug Ebersole for a second opinion on the bubble study and his advice about her options. Dr. Ebersole gave Deana the same response as the other physicians; but, knowing Deana and her passion for diving, he suggested that she have her PFO fixed, since her plan was to continue diving.
Deana also spent time talking to other divers who had been diagnosed with PFOs—some who had them repaired and some who had decided against it—in order to get a more complete picture from both a patient and a doctor point of view. One of the final conversations that pushed Deana to have her PFO repaired was with a coworker who was a nurse practitioner in cardiology with knowledge of PFOs and diving. Her coworker was pretty blunt, stating, “Why are you playing Russian Roulette? You have worked in cardiac and know the risks.”
Some of these risks include Arterial Gas Embolism (AGE), Venous Gas Embolism (VGE), and cerebral embolism. That was the final “Aha” moment to tip the scale and get Deana to schedule her PFO repair, since “Russian Roulette” was exactly what Deana was doing based on her diving activities following her DCI hit.
Team Approach to Treatment
Bert Berzicha, one of our GUE Seattle community members, also completed his TTE as a result of having had some symptoms of DCI in the past. The test confirmed the presence of a large PFO. Deana and Bert compared notes initially and discussed diving as a team on future dives using more conservative decompression profiles than other teams, allowing the other teams to get out of the water sooner. Deana, however, related what she had learned from talking with her coworker and changed her mind about diving conservatively and instead decided to get the PFO repaired.
Deana did not want to take the risk of neurological deficits that could be irreversible. Deana suggested to Bert that he come with her to have his PFO repaired at the same time. Bert continued to research the subject, looked at his work schedule, and decided doing a “team” procedure made sense. Just as a dive team shares a plan, resources, and emergency procedures, a medical procedure shares similar benefits when working as a team.
It was time to plan a date for both of them to have the procedure. Deana and Bert both live in the Seattle area. Dr. Ebersole lives in Lakeland, Florida, so logistics included time off work, pre- and post-surgical care, flights, hotels, and transportation. Deana arranged to have her sister Jessica fly into Tampa from Dallas, prior to them arriving, so she could pick them up from the airport to make it to the hospital in time for the procedure. I was going to be in Australia on a business trip at the time, so I was not able to be there pre-surgery. I ended up reworking my return trip and flew from Canberra, AU to San Francisco, then on to Tampa, to land just an hour after their surgeries were finished and meet them back at the hotel.
Even though Deana and Bert could fly home 24 hours after the procedure, they decided to stay the weekend just in case there were any complications and to take it easy. Deana, however, had a different take on “easy.” The morning after surgery, Deana was invited by Dr. Ebersole to watch a procedure that he and his team perform called the “WATCHMAN” procedure (less than 24 hours after post-op). Then we picked up Bert and Jessica, and jumped into the truck to do a 300-mile, five-hour road trip to High Springs, FL, to take a tour of the Halcyon facility and say “Hi” to Orie Braun, Lauren Fanning, and Mark Messersmith; stop in at Global Underwater Explorers (GUE) HQ to buy some swag; and drive down to Ginnie Springs to see where Cave 1 may take place in Deana’s and my near future. Not bad a day after surgery.
It was at Ginnie Springs where Bert came to Deana and stated he thought he had active bleeding. We all paused and turned pale, knowing we were not in a great location for this to be happening, but after being assessed by Deana it turned out to be post-op bruising from the surgery. This did, however, make us stop and think, “We just drove 300 miles away from the hospital we had decided to be close to in case of complications.” I am sure Gareth Lock would find a really good human factors story in there somewhere.
Deana’s PFO adventure Timeline
- OCT 8: 47 m/153 ft technical dive resulting in a DCI episode requiring recompression.
- OCT 20: First dive post-chamber ride to 16 m/52 ft
- OCT 29: TTE Bubble Study; “Deana has a small to moderate PFO”
- NOV 17: Dr. Ebersole receives Deana’s TTE study for a second opinion
- NOV 21: Deanna dives now to 28 m/90 ft
- DEC 4: Last dive before PFO repair. In the 46 days since her hyperbaric treatment Deana made 15 dives: “Conservative Not”
- DEC 12: Deana and Bert have PFO procedure
- DEC 13: Lakeland to High Springs road trip
- JAN 27: First dive post closure—15 m/49 ft and spaced dives 2-3 days apart
- FEB 15: Started doing multiple dives daily no greater 15 m/50 ft
- MAR 8: PFO follow-up; OFFICIALLY cleared by Dr Ebersole to dive
- MAY 7: Dives now pushing 30 m/100 ft
- MAY 31: First Tec dive to 33 m/110 ft
Since May, Deana has done 120 dives in 2020 with a max depth of 52 m/170ft, which she did on September 12. Deana has gone back to no-restriction diving and has completed 16 technical dives since this summer. Some of these have been assisting with photogrammetry dives.
- 46 m/150 ft to 52 m/170 ft: 3 dives
- 40 m/130 ft to 46 m/150 ft: 5 dives
- 30 m/100 ft to 40 m/130 ft: 8 dives
Getting Personal With PFOs
COVID-19 has prevented us from doing a dive trip this year, which is the one main test we still have yet to do: repeat the scenario that always led to her getting DCI, which was three consecutive days of recreation and tech dives, to see if she experiences any recurrence of DCI symptoms. 2021 will hopefully open up this opportunity, or by that time Deana will already be training for GUE’s Tech 2 course. In either case, Deana and Bert are both very happy to have had their PFOs repaired; both have seen improvements in their health in other areas such as endurance, no longer being easily winded, and, in Bert’s case, less headaches, which he had prior to the PFO closure.
To get a PFO repaired is a personal choice, and no one should ever take surgery lightly as it has its own risks. Divers with PFOs need to do their own research and consult an interventional cardiologist, such as Dr. Ebersole, who understands diving. Only then can they make an informed choice based on their own unique situation whether or not a PFO closure is right for them. This article is meant to show the process and outcome of two very experienced and ambitious divers who made the choice to have their PFO repaired and the results of that decision.
Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: The effectiveness of risk mitigation interventions in divers with persistent (patent) foramen ovale by George Anderson, Douglas Ebersole, Derek Covington and Petar J Denoble. 2019 Jun 30.
Alert Diver: PFO Study Update by Petar J Denoble
Alert Diver: Cases studies of divers who had their PFOs closed with transcatheter-applied occluders: Divers with Holes in their Hearts by Petar J Denoble 2010
James D. Fraser is a GUE Fundamentals and Rec 1/2 Instructor, PADI MSDT, and NAUI Scuba Instructor, and has been diving in the Pacific Northwest for over 30 years. James currently lives in Seattle, WA, with his wife and dive teammate Deana Fraser. As a member of the GUE Seattle Board of Directors, James is able to share his experiences and work with Deana at growing the local diving community sharing their passion with all who are interested. James recently embraced technical diving, becoming certified as a Technical 1 diver with GUE. James and Deana have had opportunities to travel all over the world to experience their passion in amazing places such as Egypt and the Maldives. James currently works as a Cyber Security Director with a Fortune 500 Defense Contractor and has been a residential construction business owner and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT).
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